Law on Vocational Education (revised) – Mongolia

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Summary of Policy:

1. Target population

This law provides a general framework for providing vocational education to citizens. As it is possible to combine vocational education with secondary education by enrolling 14 to 15-year-olds who graduate from secondary school in vocational education for 2.5 years, youth comprise 70 per cent of all students studying at vocational education colleges.

Additionally, informal data show that about 60 per cent of students in vocational education colleges come from low income families. Some of these individuals are orphans and young people with very little money.

2. Goals and Objectives

The law regulates the purpose, content, management and organizational structure of vocational education.

3. Challenges and difficulties

In the 2015 academic year, about 30,000 people were enrolled in vocational education, while in 2017, 16,000 students were enrolled.

The reduction of enrollments may be due to the suspension, in September 2016, of vocational education school’s variable costs which were previously covered by the state.

4. Outcomes and impact

The passing of this law created the opportunity to pursue free vocational education. In 2008, more than 11,000 people graduated and in 2012 this doubled to 23,000.  According to the 2015 Labour Employment Survey, most TVET graduates were working in permanent jobs with good social and health insurance coverage

Timeline: It has been in effect from February 2009.


The law specifies that the Vocational Education and Training Fund should be in place and the State Great Hural (Parliament of Mongolia) should define how much budget to allocate annually.

Allocated funds:

  • Financing of variable cost per student
  • The government is responsible for covering the dormitory costs of state-owned schools, which enables children from low income families to attend vocational education schools

In addition, both training and career orientated field work have been considered for inclusion.


The law provides regulatory support to vocational education institutes, but the government does not provide allowances to vocational education colleges due to an economic downturn and lack of funds. This demonstrates the inadequacy of the regulation.

The fact that vocational education now belongs to the Ministry of Labour has reduced the importance of the issue being linked to the education sector.

Opportunities for Improvement:

The law should include a clear provision that the fund for promoting vocational education cannot be excluded.

The law needs to clearly define the role of intersectoral coordination in vocational education. For example, it is necessary that there is coordination between the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labour.


Project Details

Date: November 18, 2017

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